International Journal of Applied Science and Technology

ISSN 2221-0997 (Print), 2221-1004 (Online) 10.30845/ijast

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Petroleum Sludge Cake: Extraction and Origin - a Case Study
Edward Nixon Pakpahan, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty


The aim of this study was to determine the most effective solvent(s) of Acetone, Dichloromethane (DCM), n-Hexane solvents and their mixtures of PAH soxhlet extraction (SE) from petroleum sludge cake sample; also to determine the origin of PAH in petroleum sludge cake sample - a case study. Gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used for analytical determination of the  PAH compounds. The result was revealed that the binary mixture solvent of Acetone+n-Hexane (1:1) (v/v) was the most effective of solvent common used because it was the only one which was able to extract the  PAH compounds and yielded the highest amount of total  PAH extracted from the petroleum sludge cake. Meanwhile, n-Hexane solvent and DCM+n-Hexane (1:1) were less effective ones. The quantitative result of analysis of  PAH compounds: Phenanthrene/Ph, Anthracene/An (both 3-rings) and Fluoranthene/Fl, Pyrene/Py (both 4-rings) could be used to determine the origin of PAH. In conjunction with their molecular ratio: An/(An+Ph) of 0.045, and Fl/(Fl+Py) of 0.483, cross-plotting of An/(An+Ph) vs Fl/(Fl+Py) indicated that the PAHs compounds in petroleum sludge cake samples originated dominantly from pyrolytic (petroleum combusted) sources.

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